• KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems
    Monthly Online Journal (eISSN: 1976-7277)

Geometrically Invariant Image Watermarking using Connected Objects and Gravity Centers

Vol. 7, No. 11, November 28, 2013
10.3837/tiis.2013.11.020, Download Paper (Free):

Abstract

The design of geometrically invariant watermarking is one of the most challenging work in digital image watermarking research area. To achieve the robustness to geometrical attacks, the inherent characteristic of an image is usually used. In this paper, a geometrically invariant image watermarking scheme using connected objects and gravity center is proposed. First, the gray-scale image is converted into the binary one, and the connected objects according to the connectedness of binary image are obtained, then the coordinates of these connected objects are mapped to the gray-scale image, and the gravity centers of those bigger objects are chosen as the feature points for watermark embedding. After that, the line between each gravity center and the center of the whole image is rotated an angle to form a sector, and finally the same version of watermark is embedded into these sectors. Because the image connectedness is topologically invariant to geometrical attacks such as scaling and rotation, and the gravity center of the connected object as feature points is very stable, the watermark synchronization is realized successfully under the geometrical distortion. The proposed scheme can extract the watermark information without using the original image or template. The simulation results show the proposed scheme has a good invisibility for watermarking application, and stronger robustness than previous feature-based watermarking schemes against geometrical attacks such as rotation, scaling and cropping, and can also resist common image processing operations including JPEG compression, adding noise, median filtering, and histogram equalization, etc.


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Cite this article

[IEEE Style]
H. Wanga, B. Yina and L. Zhoub, "Geometrically Invariant Image Watermarking using Connected Objects and Gravity Centers," KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 2893-2912, 2013. DOI: 10.3837/tiis.2013.11.020.

[ACM Style]
Hongxia Wanga, Bangxu Yina, and Linna Zhoub. 2013. Geometrically Invariant Image Watermarking using Connected Objects and Gravity Centers. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, 7, 11, (2013), 2893-2912. DOI: 10.3837/tiis.2013.11.020.