• KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems
    Monthly Online Journal (eISSN: 1976-7277)

Real Time Related Key Attack on Hummingbird-2

Vol. 6, No. 8, August 24, 2012
10.3837/tiis.2012.08.004, Download Paper (Free):


Hummingbird is a lightweight encryption and message authentication primitive published in RISC’09 and WLC’10. In FSE’11, Markku-Juhani O.Saarinen presented a differential divide-and-conquer method which has complexity upper bounded by 2^64 operations and requires processing of few megabytes of chosen messages under two related nonces (IVs). The improved version, Hummingbird-2, was presented in RFIDSec 2011. Based on the idea of differential collision, this paper discovers some weaknesses of the round function WD16. Combining with the simple key loading algorithm, a related-key chosen-IV attack which can recover the full secret key is proposed. Under 15 pairs of related keys, the 128 bit initial key can be recovered, requiring 2^27 chosen IV and the computational complexity is O(2^27). In average, the attack needs several minutes to recover the full 128-bit secret key on a PC. The experimental result corroborates our attack. The result shows that the Hummingbird-2 cipher can’t resist related key attack.


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Cite this article

[IEEE Style]
K. Zhang, L. Ding, J. Li and J. Guan, "Real Time Related Key Attack on Hummingbird-2," KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1946-1963, 2012. DOI: 10.3837/tiis.2012.08.004.

[ACM Style]
Kai Zhang, Lin Ding, Junzhi Li, and Jie Guan. 2012. Real Time Related Key Attack on Hummingbird-2. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, 6, 8, (2012), 1946-1963. DOI: 10.3837/tiis.2012.08.004.

[BibTeX Style]
@article{tiis:20157, title="Real Time Related Key Attack on Hummingbird-2", author="Kai Zhang and Lin Ding and Junzhi Li and Jie Guan and ", journal="KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems", DOI={10.3837/tiis.2012.08.004}, volume={6}, number={8}, year="2012", month={August}, pages={1946-1963}}