• KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems
    Monthly Online Journal (eISSN: 1976-7277)

Deep Recurrent Neural Network for Multiple Time Slot Frequency Spectrum Predictions of Cognitive Radio

Vol. 11, No.6, June 30, 2017
10.3837/tiis.2017.06.013, Download Paper (Free):

Abstract

The main processes of a cognitive radio system include spectrum sensing, spectrum decision, spectrum sharing, and spectrum conversion. Experimental results show that these stages introduce a time delay that affects the spectrum sensing accuracy, reducing its efficiency. To reduce the time delay, the frequency spectrum prediction was proposed to alleviate the burden on the spectrum sensing. In this paper, the deep recurrent neural network (DRNN) was proposed to predict the spectrum of multiple time slots, since the existing methods only predict the spectrum of one time slot. The continuous state of a channel is divided into a many time slots, forming a time series of the channel state. Since there are more hidden layers in the DRNN than in the RNN, the DRNN has fading memory in its bottom layer as well as in the past input. In addition, the extended Kalman filter was used to train the DRNN, which overcomes the problem of slow convergence and the vanishing gradient of the gradient descent method. The spectrum prediction based on the DRNN was verified with a WiFi signal, and the error of the prediction was analyzed. The simulation results proved that the multiple slot spectrum prediction improved the spectrum efficiency and reduced the energy consumption of spectrum sensing.


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Cite this article

[IEEE Style]
Zhi-ling Tang and Si-min Li, "Deep Recurrent Neural Network for Multiple Time Slot Frequency Spectrum Predictions of Cognitive Radio," KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 3029-3045, 2017. DOI: 10.3837/tiis.2017.06.013

[ACM Style]
Tang, Z. and Li, S. 2017. Deep Recurrent Neural Network for Multiple Time Slot Frequency Spectrum Predictions of Cognitive Radio. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, 11, 6, (2017), 3029-3045. DOI: 10.3837/tiis.2017.06.013