• KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems
    Monthly Online Journal (eISSN: 1976-7277)

Visual Observation Confidence based GMM Face Recognition robust to Illumination Impact in a Real-world Database


Abstract

The GMM is a conventional approach which has been recently applied in many face recognition studies. However, the question about how to deal with illumination changes while ensuring high performance is still a challenge, especially with real-world databases. In this paper, we propose a Visual Observation Confidence (VOC) measure for robust face recognition for illumination changes. Our VOC value is a combined confidence value of three measurements: Flatness Measure (FM), Centrality Measure (CM), and Illumination Normality Measure (IM). While FM measures the discrimination ability of one face, IM represents the degree of illumination impact on that face. In addition, we introduce CM as a centrality measure to help FM to reduce some of the errors from unnecessary areas such as the hair, neck or background. The VOC then accompanies the feature vectors in the EM process to estimate the optimal models by modified-GMM training. In the experiments, we introduce a real-world database, called KoFace, besides applying some public databases such as the Yale and the ORL database. The KoFace database is composed of 106 face subjects under diverse illumination effects including shadows and highlights. The results show that our proposed approach gives a higher Face Recognition Rate (FRR) than the GMM baseline for indoor and outdoor datasets in the real-world KoFace database (94% and 85%, respectively) and in ORL, Yale databases (97% and 100% respectively).


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Cite this article

[IEEE Style]
Anh Tuan TRAN, Jin Young KIM, Asmatullah CHAUDHRY, The Bao PHAM and Hyoung-Gook Kim, "Visual Observation Confidence based GMM Face Recognition robust to Illumination Impact in a Real-world Database," KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1824-1845, 2016. DOI: 10.3837/tiis.2016.04.020

[ACM Style]
TRAN, A. T., KIM, J. Y., CHAUDHRY, A., PHAM, T. B., and Kim, H. 2016. Visual Observation Confidence based GMM Face Recognition robust to Illumination Impact in a Real-world Database. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, 10, 4, (2016), 1824-1845. DOI: 10.3837/tiis.2016.04.020